Golful Guantanamo explicat în hărți și diagrame | Știri Infografice Stiri Sud

Exact la patru luni după atacurile din 11 septembrie 2001, Statele Unite au înființat o închisoare de înaltă securitate în baza Guantanamo Bay.

De atunci, „Gitmo” a reținut până la 780 de deținuți, prizonieri ai așa-numitului „război împotriva terorii”. Astăzi rămân 39.

Înființată în timpul președinției lui George W Bush, închisoarea offshore era menită să dețină suspecți membri al-Qaeda, capturați în timpul invaziei Afganistanului în 2001.

Până în prezent, din cei 780 de deținuți, 732 au fost eliberați fără acuzație, mulți după ce au fost reținuți timp de mai bine de un deceniu fără mijloace legale pentru a le contesta detențiile.

Unde este Golful Guantanamo?

Situată în vârful estic al Cubei, baza navală din Golful Guantanamo are 116 km pătrați și se află sub controlul SUA de la sfârșitul secolului al XIX-lea.

Baza este o problemă puternic dezbătută între SUA și Cuba. Timp de zeci de ani, Cuba insistă asupra faptului că SUA va înapoia teritoriul pe care l-a preluat cu forța în 1898 și ulterior a fost închiriat definitiv de la guvernul lui Tomas Estrada Palma, primul președinte al Cubei, în 1903.

(Al Jazeera)

Înființat inițial ca o unitate de detenție temporară denumită „Tabăra cu raze X” în 2002, complexul închisorii cuprinde acum șapte lagăre de detenție etichetate în conformitate cu ordinea în care au fost construite. Potrivit armatei SUA, toți deținuții rămași se află în lagărele cinci și șase.

Deținuți după naționalitate

De la 11 ianuarie 2002, cel puțin 780 de deținuți din 48 de țări au fost reținuți în Golful Guantanamo. Doar 16 au fost acuzați vreodată de infracțiuni, potrivit Human Rights Watch.

(Al Jazeera)

Printre țările cu cel mai mare număr de deținuți se numără: Afganistan (219), Arabia Saudită (134), Yemen (115), Pakistan (72) și Algeria (23), potrivit New York Times ‘Guantanamo Docket tracker.

Cel mai tânăr deținut a fost Omar Khadr, în vârstă de 15 ani, un cetățean canadian care a fost eliberat în 2015 după 13 ani închiși.

În 2017, guvernul canadian a plătit lui Khadr o decontare de 10,5 milioane de dolari canadieni (8,1 milioane de dolari) și și-a cerut formal scuze pentru orice rol pe care guvernul l-a jucat în abuzurile pe care le-a suferit ca deținut la Guantanamo Bay.

Cel mai bătrân prizonier încă reținut este Saifullah Paracha, în vârstă de 73 de ani, cetățean pakistanez care a petrecut ultimii 17 ani în detenție fără acuzație.

În mai, SUA au aprobat eliberarea lui Paracha, concluzionând doar că „nu este o amenințare continuă” pentru SUA. Paracha ar putea fi returnat acasă în următoarele câteva luni, potrivit avocatului său.

Ce s-a întâmplat cu cei 780 de deținuți?

Din 2002, 732 de deținuți din Guantanamo au fost trimiși acasă sau în alte țări prin acorduri de transfer de prizonieri. Sunt încă 39 deținuți. Nouă au murit în arest.

(Al Jazeera)

Printre țările care au luat cel mai mare număr de deținuți se numără: Afganistan (203), Arabia Saudită (140), Pakistan (63), Oman (30) și Emiratele Arabe Unite (24), în conformitate cu dosarul Guantanamo.

Dintre cei 39 de deținuți rămași, 17 sunt deținuți pe termen nelimitat, fără recomandări de transfer, 10 sunt eligibili pentru transfer dacă sunt îndeplinite condițiile de securitate, 10 au fost acuzați de armata SUA și doi au fost condamnați.

Închiderea închisorii

Cu patru președinții și aproape 20 de ani, cel mai renumit centru de detenție din lume a devenit un simbol al încălcărilor drepturilor omului.

Mai multe grupuri internaționale pentru drepturile omului, inclusiv HRW, Amnesty International și Comitetul Internațional al Crucii Roșii, au condamnat în repetate rânduri presupusele încălcări ale drepturilor omului, inclusiv metode dure de interogare, despre care criticii spun că s-au ridicat la tortură.

(Al Jazeera)

În 2006, secretarul general al ONU, Kofi Annan, a declarat că SUA ar trebui să închidă închisoarea de la Guantanamo Bay cât mai curând posibil, susținând o concluzie cheie a unui grup independent numit de ONU.

În timpul președinției sale, George W Bush a spus că ar dori să vadă Guantanamo închis, dar că nu va fi ușor.

Succesorul său, Barack Obama, a promis că va închide centrul de detenție din Guantanamo și în a doua zi de funcție a semnat un ordin executiv pentru închiderea acestuia în termen de un an. Asta nu s-a întâmplat niciodată.

În 2018, fostul președinte Donald Trump a promis să păstreze închisoarea deschisă și a semnat propriul său ordin executiv care inversează ordinul lui Obama.

Președintele Joe Biden a reînnoit efortul administrației Obama de a închide închisoarea. În iulie 2021, prizonierul marocan Abdul Latif Nasser a devenit primul deținut transferat sub administrația Biden. El a fost reținut de SUA din 2002 fără a fi acuzat.

Aproximativ 540 de deținuți au fost eliberați în timpul președinției Bush (2001-2009), aproximativ 200 în timpul administrației Obama (2009-2017), unul în timpul președinției lui Trump (2017-2021) și unul în timpul președinției actuale a lui Biden.

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