UE face presiuni pentru o mai mare autonomie în domeniul apărării pe fondul consecințelor Afganistanului | Știrile Uniunii Europene Stiri Sud

Încă depășiți de deficiențele Uniunii Europene în Afganistan, oficialii din blocul celor 27 de națiuni s-au întâlnit pentru a discuta despre modalități de a-și îmbunătăți răspunsul la viitoarele crize și de a reduce dependența de Statele Unite.

Miniștrii europeni ai apărării și afacerilor externe s-au reunit joi în Slovenia pentru discuții care implică și oficiali NATO și ONU pentru a căuta modalități de a îmbunătăți angajamentul operațional al blocului și de a dezvolta o forță de răspuns rapid capabilă să opereze în teatre militare dificile.

Miniștrii vor discuta despre planurile așa-numitei busole strategice, un document care vizează armonizarea gestionării crizelor și definirea ambițiilor de apărare pentru bloc, care se așteaptă să fie elaborat înainte de sfârșitul anului.

„Este clar că nevoia unei mai multe apărări europene nu a fost niciodată la fel de evidentă ca astăzi după evenimentele din Afganistan”, a declarat la sosirea sa șeful politicii externe a UE, Josep Borrell.

„Există evenimente care catalizează istoria”, a spus el. „Uneori se întâmplă ceva care împinge istoria, creează o descoperire și cred că evenimentele din Afganistan din această vară sunt unul dintre aceste cazuri.”

Preluarea de către talibani a Afganistanului și operațiunea aviată de transport aerian din țară care au urmat au dezvăluit dependența UE de aliatul său.

Fără sprijinul SUA, țările europene nu ar fi fost în măsură să garanteze trecerea în siguranță a cetățenilor lor, sau chiar a trupelor lor, în afara țării devastate de război.

„Situația strategică, schimbările geo-strategice, arată că acum avem nevoie de o Europă mai puternică”, a declarat Claudio Graziano, președintele comitetului militar al UE. „Situația din Afganistan, Libia, Orientul Mijlociu, Sahel, arată că acum este momentul să acționăm începând cu crearea unei forțe rapide de intrare europeană capabilă să demonstreze voința Uniunii Europene de a acționa ca un partener strategic global. Când dacă nu acum, mai târziu ar întârzia ”.

Dar găsirea unui consens între cele 27 de state membre ale UE pentru a crea o astfel de forță este un ordin înalt. Țările europene de la granița cu Rusia, de exemplu, Polonia și națiunile baltice, se opun adesea ideii de autonomie. Germania grea din UE este, de asemenea, un puternic susținător al utilizării NATO pentru operațiuni de securitate și păstrarea umbrelei de apărare a SUA în Europa.

Cu toate acestea, ministrul sloven al apărării, Matej Tonin, a cărui țară deține în prezent președinția rotativă a UE, a declarat că crede că o mică majoritate a țărilor este favorabilă ideii.

UE este deja dotată cu echipe de reacție rapidă – așa-numitele grupuri de luptă – formate din aproximativ 1.500 de angajați. Dar nu au fost niciodată utilizate în crize majore, iar blocul nu desfășoară misiuni UE în zone active de conflict.

Tonin a declarat că miniștrii apărării au început să dezbată cum să trimită soldați în străinătate rapid și eficient, chiar și fără consensul UE, prin ridicarea cerinței de unanimitate.

„Poate că soluția este să inventăm un mecanism în care o majoritate clasică va fi suficientă și cei care sunt dispuși vor putea merge”, a spus el.

„Dacă o majoritate din Uniunea Europeană decide să trimită undeva trupele, acestea pot merge în numele Uniunii Europene. Și țările care vor participa la aceste grupuri vor fi, să spunem, țările dispuse. Pentru a nu forța țările care nu vor să facă parte din acea misiune. ”

Situația din Sahel a făcut comparații cu plecarea SUA din Afganistan, deoarece francezii se pregătesc să-și reducă prezența militară în regiunea Africii de Vest, unde grupurile dure se luptă pentru control.

În iunie, președintele francez Emmanuel Macron a anunțat sfârșitul operațiunii Barkhane, grupurile de luptă de efort ale Franței de șapte ani, legate de al-Qaeda și ISIL (ISIS) în regiunea Sahel din Africa.

Cele mai mult de 5.000 de soldați ai Franței vor fi reduși în lunile următoare, deși nu s-a acordat niciun termen. Unii observatori și-au exprimat îngrijorarea că reducerea forțelor străine ar putea duce la o mai mare instabilitate în regiune.

„Am învățat lecții foarte importante și că nu ar trebui să repetăm ​​aceleași greșeli în Sahel”, a spus Tonin. „Este chiar mai important pentru Uniunea Europeană decât Afganistan. Poate avea consecințe mai mari. ”

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